Aphasias: What is it? Learning after a brain injury looks promising.

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Primary auditory perception, such as hearing happens in the temporal lobe where the primary auditory cortex is located. The primary auditory cortex receives sensory information from the ears and processes the information. Auditory signals from the cochlea reach the cerebral cortex through the superior temporal gyrus and are processed by the primary auditory cortex in the left temporal lobe. The brain processes language through the auditory cortex that is located around the upper side of the temporal lobe. The temporal lobe processes sensory input into meanings that form human communication. The ear collects vibrations from outside through the tympanic membrane and transmits them to the ossicles which in turn transmit the vibrations into fluid in the inner ear. The cochlea is a spiral cavity of the inner ear containing the Corti. The Corti is an organ that produces electrochemical signals caused by the ossicle’s fluid moving through hair cells. The auditory or cochlear nerve produces impulses that transfer auditory information from the inner ear to the brain.

The process is complex: The brain processes information from the outside and it also process information that people want to communicate to others. The brain has billions of neurons sending and receiving information simultaneously that makes humans function as we do. The arcuate fasciculus links Broca’s area to Wernicke’s area in the superior and inferior posterior temporal lobe where they process language. The inferior parietal lobule processes and classifies language, auditory, visual, and sensory stimuli that is acquired and determines how the information is used. The fusiform gyrus helps recognize words and classify things within other categories.

Primary auditory perception, such as hearing happens in the temporal lobe where the primary auditory cortex is located receives sensory information from the ears and processes the information. Auditory signals from the cochlea reach the cerebral cortex through the superior temporal gyrus and are processed by the primary auditory cortex in the left temporal lobe.

Understanding language happens in the Verna Caesarea, but the brain is more complex than that. It doesn’t do things in order. Instead, the brain has many things happening simultaneously so that we comprehend what we see and hear, find the right word to express a thought, select the right sound to speak, use the right muscles, and switch between listening and speaking. 

The Pars triangularis helps develop speech. It sits in the Broca’s area of the brain’s pars orbitalis and pars opercularis in the inferior frontal gyrus.  The superior posterior temporal lobe receives language and sits in the Wernicke’s area. If the arcuate fasciculus that links the Broca’s area to the Wernicke’s area is damaged, a person would have trouble repeating something. The fusiform gyrus also processes language and if damaged a person would not be able to recognize words. If the temporal lobe is damaged a person may not be able to select the sound needed to say a word.

Research suggests that social engagement such as singing familiar songs and choral singing has a positive effect on patients with non-fluent aphasia or Broca’s aphasia that helps them to pronounce words. Assessments were carried out by speech and language pathologists before and after a 6-month intervention period where participants had to attend either weekly choir sessions (experimental condition), drama classes (control condition) or neither of these. An individual analysis of twenty-two participants showed a positive correlation between attendance to any social activity and functional communication improvements. Research seems to be moving towards forming effective treatments that use the brain’s neuroplasticity to create the ability to form and reorganize synaptic connections . The idea that people can learn to pronounce words or do other physical functions after a brain injury that impairs them gives hope that people will soon be able to overcome obstacles that may not have ever been overcome before.

Minding Hearts is building advocacy and peer support groups, “Hearts and Minds” in each state. The groups are created to raise awareness, educate, and advocate for those that might not otherwise be heard. We are here for encouragement, education, and support. We cannot give legal advice, but we can try and direct you in the right direction with your case. Links to legal services are listed with their states. Please share and let’s grow our groups. We are here to support families and develop resources that maintain family integrity. We look forward to your support. If you would rather become active by donating, then visit the donation page. Thank you.

References

Zumbansen, Anna, Pascale Tremblay. (2019) Music-based interventions for aphasia could act through a motor-speech mechanism: a systematic review and case–control analysis of published individual participant data. Aphasiology 33:4, pages 466-497.

Garrett,  B., & Hough, G.  (2018). Brain and  behavior: An introduction to behavioral  neuroscience (5th ed.). Los  Angeles, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

6 thoughts on “Aphasias: What is it? Learning after a brain injury looks promising.

  1. Excellent blog you have here but I was wondering if you knew of any community forums that cover the same topics talked about here? I’d really love to be a part of group where I can get feed-back from other knowledgeable individuals that share the same interest. If you have any suggestions, please let me know. Kudos!

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Thank you. I have set up 50 state groups on facebook where I am hoping people will come together to talk about things. Everyone cares about something and there is a lot going on. I will share this link and you can scroll down to see if anyone is in your state yet. Some of the groups have gathered several dozen people but they don’t seem to be actively talking about anything yet, and facebook keeps me on restriction now because I try to share something to all 50 states until someone comes along that wants to get people talking. I hope that people develop local in person groups and then share information about all kinds of topics and what they are doing. Asphasia is something that I wanted to learn about when I saw someone that I’ve known for a while experiencing difficulty with tasks that used to be second nature to them. I haven’t seen anyone talking about it yet though. I do appreciate your thoughtfulness. Here is the link to the state groups if you want to scroll and see if anything is going there. Thanks
      https://mindinghearts.com/hearts-and-minds/

      Like

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